Healthy vs unhealthy hooves

There’s a saying in the Health and Wellbeing world that many of us don’t realise how good our bodies could feel.  I think that in the Horse world the equivalent might be that most of us don’t know what a healthy hoof looks like.

The hoof on the left (below) is a healthy hoof: smooth wall, low heel, short toe.

The one on the right is an unhealthy hoof: the coronet band is at an unnatural angle indicating internal changes (see below) the wall is ridged, the heel is higher and the toe longer (even though it appears to have been trimmed).

hoof1

hoof xray comparison

The xray on the left (above) shows how the pedal bone in a healthy foot is parallel to the wall of the hoof.  The pedal bone on the right has separated from the wall of the hoof and is now pressing painfully on the sole of the foot.

The photograph below compares the underside of healthy / unhealthy hooves.  For anyone who might be unfamiliar with the names of the parts of the hoof, here is a diagram showing the areas I’ll be referring to:

hoof anatomy

The hoof on the left (below) has a strong sole, wall and bars. Also the frog looks healthy and there’s a nice wide heel with a shallow sulcus.

The hoof on the right has a contracted heel with a deep sulcus which could allow infections such as thrush to grow. The frog and sole look very different from those of the other hoof and the wall appears to be crumbling. There are marks on the sole which could indicate infection or bruising.

hoof2

These changes in the hooves, and the resulting lameness that often follows, can be very worrying.  In fact many horses are lost each year due to painful hoof conditions.  These are often diagnosed as ‘laminitis’ or ‘navicular’ however they are actually part of a whole-body dis-ease.

Domestic horses are often kept stabled for long periods of time.  This causes stress which results in chemical changes in their bodies and also lowers the effectiveness of their immune systems.  It also means that they can be left standing in their own waste and that they have restricted movement.  Many commercial feeds contain high levels of sugars (even those which say they are aimed at Insulin Resistant horses) and also chemicals such as pesticides, preservatives and mould inhibitors.  All these take their toll on the horse’s metabolism.

The AANHCP (Association for the Advancement of Natural Horsecare Practices) put out this statement:

 “We have long urged you to read the labels on feed products and avoid those with sweeteners, insecticides, mould inhibitors, petroleum by-products (mineral oil), sugar / molasses / other ‘hidden’ sweeteners, and agricultural waste products such as beet pulp, oatfeed & wheat middlings. Now, many hay growers – especially in humid, rainy areas – are using glyphosate weed killers, not only to kill weeds, but also to speed up the drying time on hay crops. 

According to Dr Debbie Carley of Thunderbrook Feeds in the U.K., these weedkiller residues are getting into feed in vast amounts ever since the patent on glyphosate (the main ingredient in most weedkillers) expired, which makes the toxic chemical much cheaper.

Sadly the alternative of turning your horse out on grass isn’t always the answer, particularly if the grass is rich pasture land originally intended for grazing cattle or sheep.  This grass was for fattening the livestock for market or for a high milk yield and is generally too rich for horses who have evolved to live off low nutrient vegetation.  Also, if a horse is surrounded by this tasty food there is no motivation for him to move far.

Contrast this with the lifestyle of wild horse herds.  They can roam distances of up to 30km in a day looking for food, and they are continuously browsing and foraging throughout the day.  The domesticated horse’s lifestyle is very different from that of their wild cousins and involves much less movement.  Just like us, this can lead to ill health.  However, in recognising this we can explore changes to improve the health, and quality of life, of the animals in our care.

Dr Sid Gustafson of The University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada says that we need to “provide the horse with abundant forage, friendship, and locomotion.”

In his blog article posted in April 2014 he goes on to say:

Locomotion is required not only for normal healing, but for normal digestion, respiration, hoof health, circulation, and all other physiologic functions of the horse. Stall rest is at the expense of many systems, especially the hoof and metabolic systems. Digestion and respiration are compromised by confinement and restriction of movement. Metabolic, digestive, circulatory, hoof health, musculoskeletal, and nervous, systems, as well as the all other systems and functions of the horse, are dependent upon adequate and appropriate locomotion for normal functioning and/or healing.

The wall of the hoof is made of keratin, just like our fingernails and in a healthy hoof it grows at the rate of about 1/4 to 3/8 inch per month.  Therefore, given the correct diet and lifestyle horses hooves can recover from the changes shown above, enabling them to have strong, sound feet again. It may take time, and the hoof will probably go through some weird shapes along the way, but your horse will be happier and healthier in the end.

 

References

A Tale of Two Horses by Kathie Gregory

tale of 2 horses

I was very fortunate to win a copy of this book in a competition run by the Barefoot Horse magazine.  I had read about the book and was very much looking forward to reading it!

Kathie and her husband run a small farm raising limited breeds.  Kathie is an experienced animal behaviourist but had not previously worked with horses.  Then, for her 40th birthday her husband, Matt, surprised her with the gift of 2 ex-racehorses.

horse partnership

Charlie and Star came to the farm fresh from the track.  Many people predicted that it would all end in disaster but Kathie fell in love with these two beautiful animals and was determined to explore ways of working with them that would enable them to settle in to their new home and become happy, well-adjusted horses.  A tale of two horses is the story of this journey.

Kathie is passionate about ‘free will teaching’.  She believes strongly in the power of positive reinforcement and always seeks to use this method over any form of force.  She also states:

“giving my horses self-awareness and the ability to make decisions is invaluable”

She goes on to explain that:

“An aware horse who knows what to do in a situation, and what coping strategies he can fall back on should he need to, will be a more confident, balanced animal, whilst a horse who is incapable of looking after his own basic needs is not.  If trained to understand that there is no threat in following his owner’s wishes, and he does so willingly, an animal will become reliable, safe and secure.  But if forced into certain behaviours or actions, he will invariably panic if things go wrong, and be unable to decide for himself what action he should take to cope with a stressful situation.”

 When Charlie and Star arrived they did not know each other.  Charlie had shut down and his default response was to bite.  He would not even allow Star to get close.  Star could not stand still and did not like to be touched.  When she came into season she became moody and would kick out at Charlie.  Feed times were a challenge as they would compete for access to the tasty resources on offer.

Kathie describes how she gave the two horses time to settle in and to get to know her and each other.  Her priority was to always be gentle around them and to never show any form of threat or aggression so that they would learn that she was completely predictable and trustworthy.  Once they started to respond to this she was able to teach more specific lessons such as how to interact gently with humans, how to look after their own comfort without always relying on being told what to do, and how to engage their thinking rather than reactive processes if a situation became stressful.

There were some challenges along the way!  Some of these came from people who disagreed with her methods and felt that she needed to show the horses who was boss.  And indeed she did have to deal with Charlie going through a ‘teenage’ phase of realising that he could say ‘No’ without fear of punishment.  Kathie had the wisdom to realise that this is a perfectly natural phase that horses often go through which allowed her to take it in her stride and not make a big deal of it.  Continuing to use positive strategies at this stage meant that she strengthened her connection with Charlie as he realised that he was being given a voice.  This avoided him becoming frustrated and instead they were able to explore other ways of doing things which has had long-lasting benefits for their relationship.  As Kathie says:

“Charlie was still learning about himself and us, and I actively encouraged him to think and make choices, become self-aware, and let his true personality, likes and dislikes, show.  This is such a wonderful thing to do, as it creates a true, honest relationship built on trust and understanding, and also gives an animal a strong sense of self, with the associated confidence to not just cope with life, but truly enjoy it.”

 After a year of living in this new environment both horses have settled in well and their independent characters are beginning to shine.  Charlie now enjoys receiving massages and Star has learnt how to manage her moods more constructively.  She also demonstrated that she is able to know when she needs help (after injuring her eye), to ask for it and even tolerate uncomfortable medical intervention without restraint.

I recommend this book to any horse owner / carer.  It’s a fabulous resource for those who wish to use gentler methods with their animals and also a confirmation to those who wish to follow this style of teaching that it is not only effective, it will also help to build a deeper and more lasting relationship with your horse.